Index Aliasesedit

APIs in elasticsearch accept an index name when working against a specific index, and several indices when applicable. The index aliases API allow to alias an index with a name, with all APIs automatically converting the alias name to the actual index name. An alias can also be mapped to more than one index, and when specifying it, the alias will automatically expand to the aliases indices. An alias can also be associated with a filter that will automatically be applied when searching, and routing values.

Here is a sample of associating the alias alias1 with index test1:

curl -XPOST 'http://localhost:9200/_aliases' -d '
{
    "actions" : [
        { "add" : { "index" : "test1", "alias" : "alias1" } }
    ]
}'

An alias can also be removed, for example:

curl -XPOST 'http://localhost:9200/_aliases' -d '
{
    "actions" : [
        { "remove" : { "index" : "test1", "alias" : "alias1" } }
    ]
}'

Renaming an alias is a simple remove then add operation within the same API. This operation is atomic, no need to worry about a short period of time where the alias does not point to an index:

curl -XPOST 'http://localhost:9200/_aliases' -d '
{
    "actions" : [
        { "remove" : { "index" : "test1", "alias" : "alias1" } },
        { "add" : { "index" : "test1", "alias" : "alias2" } }
    ]
}'

Associating an alias with more than one index are simply several add actions:

curl -XPOST 'http://localhost:9200/_aliases' -d '
{
    "actions" : [
        { "add" : { "index" : "test1", "alias" : "alias1" } },
        { "add" : { "index" : "test2", "alias" : "alias1" } }
    ]
}'

It is an error to index to an alias which points to more than one index.

Filtered Aliasesedit

Aliases with filters provide an easy way to create different "views" of the same index. The filter can be defined using Query DSL and is applied to all Search, Count, Delete By Query and More Like This operations with this alias.

Note

Coming in 1.4.0.

Fields referred to in alias filters must exist in the mappings of the index/indices pointed to by the alias.

To create a filtered alias, first we need to ensure that the fields already exist in the mapping:

curl -XPUT 'http://localhost:9200/test1' -d '{
  "mappings": {
    "type1": {
      "properties": {
        "user" : {
          "type": "string",
          "index": "not_analyzed"
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

Now we can create an alias that uses a filter on field user:

curl -XPOST 'http://localhost:9200/_aliases' -d '{
    "actions" : [
        {
            "add" : {
                 "index" : "test1",
                 "alias" : "alias2",
                 "filter" : { "term" : { "user" : "kimchy" } }
            }
        }
    ]
}'

Routingedit

It is possible to associate routing values with aliases. This feature can be used together with filtering aliases in order to avoid unnecessary shard operations.

The following command creates a new alias alias1 that points to index test. After alias1 is created, all operations with this alias are automatically modified to use value 1 for routing:

curl -XPOST 'http://localhost:9200/_aliases' -d '
{
    "actions" : [
        {
            "add" : {
                 "index" : "test",
                 "alias" : "alias1",
                 "routing" : "1"
            }
        }
    ]
}'

It’s also possible to specify different routing values for searching and indexing operations:

curl -XPOST 'http://localhost:9200/_aliases' -d '
{
    "actions" : [
        {
            "add" : {
                 "index" : "test",
                 "alias" : "alias2",
                 "search_routing" : "1,2",
                 "index_routing" : "2"
            }
        }
    ]
}'

As shown in the example above, search routing may contain several values separated by comma. Index routing can contain only a single value.

If an operation that uses routing alias also has a routing parameter, an intersection of both alias routing and routing specified in the parameter is used. For example the following command will use "2" as a routing value:

curl -XGET 'http://localhost:9200/alias2/_search?q=user:kimchy&routing=2,3'

Add a single aliasedit

An alias can also be added with the endpoint

PUT /{index}/_alias/{name}

where

index

The index the alias refers to. Can be any of blank | * | _all | glob pattern | name1, name2, …

name

The name of the alias. This is a required option.

routing

An optional routing that can be associated with an alias.

filter

An optional filter that can be associated with an alias.

You can also use the plural _aliases.

Examples:edit

Adding time based alias
curl -XPUT 'localhost:9200/logs_201305/_alias/2013'
Adding a user alias

First create the index and add a mapping for the user_id field:

curl -XPUT 'localhost:9200/users' -d '{
    "mappings" : {
        "user" : {
            "properties" : {
                "user_id" : {"type" : "integer"}
            }
        }
    }
}'

Then add the alias for a specific user:

curl -XPUT 'localhost:9200/users/_alias/user_12' -d '{
    "routing" : "12",
    "filter" : {
        "term" : {
            "user_id" : 12
        }
    }
}'

Aliases during index creationedit

Note

Added in 1.1.0.

Aliases can also be specified during index creation:

curl -XPUT localhost:9200/logs_20142801 -d '{
    "mappings" : {
        "type" : {
            "properties" : {
                "year" : {"type" : "integer"}
            }
        }
    },
    "aliases" : {
        "current_day" : {},
        "2014" : {
            "filter" : {
                "term" : {"year" : 2014 }
            }
        }
    }
}'

Delete aliasesedit

The rest endpoint is: /{index}/_alias/{name}

where

index

* | _all | glob pattern | name1, name2, …

name

* | _all | glob pattern | name1, name2, …

Alternatively you can use the plural _aliases. Example:

curl -XDELETE 'localhost:9200/users/_alias/user_12'

Retrieving existing aliasesedit

The get index alias api allows to filter by alias name and index name. This api redirects to the master and fetches the requested index aliases, if available. This api only serialises the found index aliases.

Possible options:

index

The index name to get aliases for. Partially names are supported via wildcards, also multiple index names can be specified separated with a comma. Also the alias name for an index can be used.

alias

The name of alias to return in the response. Like the index option, this option supports wildcards and the option the specify multiple alias names separated by a comma.

ignore_unavailable

What to do is an specified index name doesn’t exist. If set to true then those indices are ignored.

The rest endpoint is: /{index}/_alias/{alias}.

Note

Coming in 1.4.0.

The API will always include an aliases section, even if there aren’t any aliases. Previous versions would not return the aliases section.

Examples:edit

All aliases for the index users:

curl -XGET 'localhost:9200/users/_alias/*'

Response:

 {
  "users" : {
    "aliases" : {
      "user_13" : {
        "filter" : {
          "term" : {
            "user_id" : 13
          }
        },
        "index_routing" : "13",
        "search_routing" : "13"
      },
      "user_14" : {
        "filter" : {
          "term" : {
            "user_id" : 14
          }
        },
        "index_routing" : "14",
        "search_routing" : "14"
      },
      "user_12" : {
        "filter" : {
          "term" : {
            "user_id" : 12
          }
        },
        "index_routing" : "12",
        "search_routing" : "12"
      }
    }
  }
}

All aliases with the name 2013 in any index:

curl -XGET 'localhost:9200/_alias/2013'

Response:

{
  "logs_201304" : {
    "aliases" : {
      "2013" : { }
    }
  },
  "logs_201305" : {
    "aliases" : {
      "2013" : { }
    }
  }
}

All aliases that start with 2013_01 in any index:

curl -XGET 'localhost:9200/_alias/2013_01*'

Response:

{
  "logs_20130101" : {
    "aliases" : {
      "2013_01" : { }
    }
  }
}

There is also a HEAD variant of the get indices aliases api to check if index aliases exist. The indices aliases exists api supports the same option as the get indices aliases api. Examples:

curl -XHEAD 'localhost:9200/_alias/2013'
curl -XHEAD 'localhost:9200/_alias/2013_01*'
curl -XHEAD 'localhost:9200/users/_alias/*'