Root Object Typeedit

The root object mapping is an object type mapping that maps the root object (the type itself). On top of all the different mappings that can be set using the object type mapping, it allows for additional, type level mapping definitions.

The root object mapping allows to index a JSON document that either starts with the actual mapping type, or only contains its fields. For example, the following tweet JSON can be indexed:

{
    "message" : "This is a tweet!"
}

But, also the following JSON can be indexed:

{
    "tweet" : {
        "message" : "This is a tweet!"
    }
}

Out of the two, it is preferable to use the document without the type explicitly set.

Index / Search Analyzersedit

The root object allows to define type mapping level analyzers for index and search that will be used with all different fields that do not explicitly set analyzers on their own. Here is an example:

{
    "tweet" : {
        "index_analyzer" : "standard",
        "search_analyzer" : "standard"
    }
}

The above simply explicitly defines both the index_analyzer and search_analyzer that will be used. There is also an option to use the analyzer attribute to set both the search_analyzer and index_analyzer.

dynamic_date_formatsedit

dynamic_date_formats (old setting called date_formats still works) is the ability to set one or more date formats that will be used to detect date fields. For example:

{
    "tweet" : {
        "dynamic_date_formats" : ["yyyy-MM-dd", "dd-MM-yyyy"],
        "properties" : {
            "message" : {"type" : "string"}
        }
    }
}

In the above mapping, if a new JSON field of type string is detected, the date formats specified will be used in order to check if its a date. If it passes parsing, then the field will be declared with date type, and will use the matching format as its format attribute. The date format itself is explained here.

The default formats are: dateOptionalTime (ISO) and yyyy/MM/dd HH:mm:ss Z||yyyy/MM/dd Z.

Note: dynamic_date_formats are used only for dynamically added date fields, not for date fields that you specify in your mapping.

date_detectionedit

Allows to disable automatic date type detection (if a new field is introduced and matches the provided format), for example:

{
    "tweet" : {
        "date_detection" : false,
        "properties" : {
            "message" : {"type" : "string"}
        }
    }
}

numeric_detectionedit

Sometimes, even though json has support for native numeric types, numeric values are still provided as strings. In order to try and automatically detect numeric values from string, the numeric_detection can be set to true. For example:

{
    "tweet" : {
        "numeric_detection" : true,
        "properties" : {
            "message" : {"type" : "string"}
        }
    }
}

dynamic_templatesedit

Dynamic templates allow to define mapping templates that will be applied when dynamic introduction of fields / objects happens.

For example, we might want to have all fields to be stored by default, or all string fields to be stored, or have string fields to always be indexed with multi fields syntax, once analyzed and once not_analyzed. Here is a simple example:

{
    "person" : {
        "dynamic_templates" : [
            {
                "template_1" : {
                    "match" : "multi*",
                    "mapping" : {
                        "type" : "{dynamic_type}",
                        "index" : "analyzed",
                        "fields" : {
                            "org" : {"type": "{dynamic_type}", "index" : "not_analyzed"}
                        }
                    }
                }
            },
            {
                "template_2" : {
                    "match" : "*",
                    "match_mapping_type" : "string",
                    "mapping" : {
                        "type" : "string",
                        "index" : "not_analyzed"
                    }
                }
            }
        ]
    }
}

The above mapping will create a field with multi fields for all field names starting with multi, and will map all string types to be not_analyzed.

Dynamic templates are named to allow for simple merge behavior. A new mapping, just with a new template can be "put" and that template will be added, or if it has the same name, the template will be replaced.

The match allow to define matching on the field name. An unmatch option is also available to exclude fields if they do match on match. The match_mapping_type controls if this template will be applied only for dynamic fields of the specified type (as guessed by the json format).

Another option is to use path_match, which allows to match the dynamic template against the "full" dot notation name of the field (for example obj1.*.value or obj1.obj2.*), with the respective path_unmatch.

The format of all the matching is simple format, allowing to use * as a matching element supporting simple patterns such as xxx*, *xxx, xxx*yyy (with arbitrary number of pattern types), as well as direct equality. The match_pattern can be set to regex to allow for regular expression based matching.

The mapping element provides the actual mapping definition. The {name} keyword can be used and will be replaced with the actual dynamic field name being introduced. The {dynamic_type} (or {dynamicType}) can be used and will be replaced with the mapping derived based on the field type (or the derived type, like date).

Complete generic settings can also be applied, for example, to have all mappings be stored, just set:

{
    "person" : {
        "dynamic_templates" : [
            {
                "store_generic" : {
                    "match" : "*",
                    "mapping" : {
                        "store" : true
                    }
                }
            }
        ]
    }
}

Such generic templates should be placed at the end of the dynamic_templates list because when two or more dynamic templates match a field, only the first matching one from the list is used.