Match Queryedit

A family of match queries that accept text/numerics/dates, analyzes it, and constructs a query out of it. For example:

{
    "match" : {
        "message" : "this is a test"
    }
}

Note, message is the name of a field, you can substitute the name of any field (including _all) instead.

Types of Match Queriesedit

booleanedit

The default match query is of type boolean. It means that the text provided is analyzed and the analysis process constructs a boolean query from the provided text. The operator flag can be set to or or and to control the boolean clauses (defaults to or). The minimum number of optional should clauses to match can be set using the minimum_should_match parameter.

The analyzer can be set to control which analyzer will perform the analysis process on the text. It defaults to the field explicit mapping definition, or the default search analyzer.

fuzziness allows fuzzy matching based on the type of field being queried. See the section called “Fuzzinessedit” for allowed settings.

The prefix_length and max_expansions can be set in this case to control the fuzzy process. If the fuzzy option is set the query will use constant_score_rewrite as its rewrite method the fuzzy_rewrite parameter allows to control how the query will get rewritten.

Here is an example when providing additional parameters (note the slight change in structure, message is the field name):

{
    "match" : {
        "message" : {
            "query" : "this is a test",
            "operator" : "and"
        }
    }
}

zero_terms_query. If the analyzer used removes all tokens in a query like a stop filter does, the default behavior is to match no documents at all. In order to change that the zero_terms_query option can be used, which accepts none (default) and all which corresponds to a match_all query.

{
    "match" : {
        "message" : {
            "query" : "to be or not to be",
            "operator" : "and",
            "zero_terms_query": "all"
        }
    }
}

cutoff_frequency. The match query supports a cutoff_frequency that allows specifying an absolute or relative document frequency where high frequent terms are moved into an optional subquery and are only scored if one of the low frequent (below the cutoff) terms in the case of an or operator or all of the low frequent terms in the case of an and operator match.

This query allows handling stopwords dynamically at runtime, is domain independent and doesn’t require on a stopword file. It prevent scoring / iterating high frequent terms and only takes the terms into account if a more significant / lower frequent terms match a document. Yet, if all of the query terms are above the given cutoff_frequency the query is automatically transformed into a pure conjunction (and) query to ensure fast execution.

The cutoff_frequency can either be relative to the number of documents in the index if in the range [0..1) or absolute if greater or equal to 1.0.

Here is an example showing a query composed of stopwords exclusivly:

{
    "match" : {
        "message" : {
            "query" : "to be or not to be",
            "cutoff_frequency" : 0.001
        }
    }
}
phraseedit

The match_phrase query analyzes the text and creates a phrase query out of the analyzed text. For example:

{
    "match_phrase" : {
        "message" : "this is a test"
    }
}

Since match_phrase is only a type of a match query, it can also be used in the following manner:

{
    "match" : {
        "message" : {
            "query" : "this is a test",
            "type" : "phrase"
        }
    }
}

A phrase query matches terms up to a configurable slop (which defaults to 0) in any order. Transposed terms have a slop of 2.

The analyzer can be set to control which analyzer will perform the analysis process on the text. It default to the field explicit mapping definition, or the default search analyzer, for example:

{
    "match_phrase" : {
        "message" : {
            "query" : "this is a test",
            "analyzer" : "my_analyzer"
        }
    }
}
match_phrase_prefixedit

The match_phrase_prefix is the same as match_phrase, except that it allows for prefix matches on the last term in the text. For example:

{
    "match_phrase_prefix" : {
        "message" : "this is a test"
    }
}

Or:

{
    "match" : {
        "message" : {
            "query" : "this is a test",
            "type" : "phrase_prefix"
        }
    }
}

It accepts the same parameters as the phrase type. In addition, it also accepts a max_expansions parameter that can control to how many prefixes the last term will be expanded. It is highly recommended to set it to an acceptable value to control the execution time of the query. For example:

{
    "match_phrase_prefix" : {
        "message" : {
            "query" : "this is a test",
            "max_expansions" : 10
        }
    }
}

Comparison to query_string / fieldedit

The match family of queries does not go through a "query parsing" process. It does not support field name prefixes, wildcard characters, or other "advance" features. For this reason, chances of it failing are very small / non existent, and it provides an excellent behavior when it comes to just analyze and run that text as a query behavior (which is usually what a text search box does). Also, the phrase_prefix type can provide a great "as you type" behavior to automatically load search results.

Other optionsedit

  • lenient - If set to true will cause format based failures (like providing text to a numeric field) to be ignored. Defaults to false.